In OneNote 2016, in the Open page, click the "Sign In" button, and enter the work or school account, it will display:
We couldn't find an account with that email address or phone number.
Would you like to sign up for a new Microsoft account?
How and where to sign in Work or School Account?
To sign in Work or School Account, in OneNote, click "Open" tab -> "Open" page -> Open from other locations -> Add a place -> Office 365 SharePoint.
In there, you can login the Work or School Account.